Our colleagues - liquidators of the Chernobyl disaster
The dire consequences of the tragedy swept entire regions, many towns and villages, far from Chernobyl. Kiev in this list was in a special place. The fate of the city was not kidding. In case of excessive radioactive contamination of air, water, food in the city it would be a very difficult situation with the subsequent issue of the protection and possible evacuation of three millionth population. The probability of such development was very real, if not desperate resistance of the defenders of the capital of the raging elements as on the outskirts of Kiev, and in the city itself.
And after dinner, April 27, 1986 in the city there were found contaminated with radionuclides first cars. On the night of 27 April 28 thousand column of buses and trucks that were returning to Kiev after the evacuation of the city Pripyat, were stopped at the outskirts of the capital. On the morning of April 28 at an emergency meeting of the executive committee of the city the city’s leadership tried to find out who and why stopped the convoy of vehicles, hurried home to their automobile enterprises in time to reach the routes of the city. The explanations were given by an engineer-physicist of the radiation city service SES Ph.D. Y.A. Tatsiy. In the alarming information there was noted that unexpectedly and sooner than one might expect, there were documented cases of contamination with radionuclides vehicles and their level of pollution reaches hundreds of mR. The exploitation of such transport posed a real threat to the health of drivers and passengers. The route connecting Kiev with the Polesie region was contaminated, and traffic from this region leads to contamination with radionuclides streets of Kiev. 29-30 April, the city had recorded a sharp increase in background radiation.
Entry of contaminated transport in Kiev was prohibited. In nine areas in the city there were quickly established dosimetric posts and started the construction of settlements sanitization transport (sanitation post- SP). Responsibility for the construction of these facilities, the organization and conduct of decontamination measures rested with the headquarters Civil Defense of Kiev. For decontamination of transport there were used aqueous solutions of the corresponding SAR. In the course of this treatment on the posts there was accumulated a significant amount of contaminated water, that was temporarily collected in the ground or underground storage facilities. Critical situation required extraordinary solutions. A team of scientists from the КРІ, namely O.P. Shutko (the founder of the Department of Ecology and Technology of Plant Polymers), A.D. Krisenko and V.P. Basov suggested treatment technology of contaminated water that did not require the creation of stationary treatment facilities. According to this technology the process of cleaning should be done directly in reservoirs with a specially prepared solution effective reagent. The work was done with the help of special mobile units MIDW (mobile installation for decontamination of water), mounted on platforms KrAZ trucks (Kamaz). After 1-1.5 of processing radioactive substances together with sludge deposited on the bottom of the container, and the supernatant water conforms MPC pumped for re-use maintenance.
Field testing of the proposed technology demonstrated high efficiency. The degree of purification of polluted water reaches three orders of magnitude, by that time, and in the real world it was considered unattainable. The strain at the main SP in the northern direction of Kiev during two days was removed. June 6, 1986 on the order of the Chief CD of Kiev at the city headquarters of the CD there was established the team for decontamination of water, consisting of experts KPI - authors design, drivers, instrument operators, compressors. It consisted of 11 people. Quality control of the purified water is provided by a SES of Kiev. Head of division was appointed O.P. Shutko, his deputies - A.D. Krisenko and V.P. Basov. In July 1986 in Kiev factory "Dormash" and "Stroydormash" it was created another upgraded mobile unit. Mobility and high performance systems (1000-1200 m3 of treated water at single loading reagent tank installation) satisfied the smooth functioning of all SP around Kiev. The relevant central headquarters for elimination the consequences of the collapse in Chernobyl and Belarus were interested in the development.
For 1986 and the end of 1987 there was created a division operated in the rapid response and planned to control SP of Kiev region, a 30-kilometer zone, in Belarus and points wash equipment South Western Railway. During this work it has been cleaned up to 50 m3 waters. Implementation of design and selfless work of specialists KPI allowed to save the state more than 18000000 rubles (in 1986 prices.). In addition, it was no longer necessary the creation of stationary treatment facilities at SP, which, by the way, should become a lifelong radioactive burials. Construction of these facilities was stopped and inhibited.
The decision of the Government Commission elements of the proposed technology and progressive experience in Kiev have been used SP in the 30-kilometer zone of Chernobyl, and mobile installations, developed by experts of the KPI, were introduced into regiments and divisions CD of USSR. The work of this department was written in the newspaper "Pravda" from 15.08.1986, and "Pravda Ukrainy" from 12.17.1986. In 1987, the development of scientists has been awarded a gold, silver and bronze medals the main exhibition of USSR, and in 1989 it was nominated for the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technology.
Analyzing the results of the group's work in those heady days, we can say that if it was possible not just to close one of the ways of contamination with radionuclides of the city, but to change the strategy of protection. In addition to significant savings in material and financial resources, it has been preserved (and this is - most importantly!) the health and lives of hundreds of people who were planning to send into the core of the construction, commissioning and maintenance of sewage treatment plants.